This publication is the first book on the development and application of digital terrain modeling for regional planning and policy support. It is a compilation of research results by international research groups at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, providing scientific support to the development and implementation of EU environmental policy. This practice-oriented book is recommended reading for practising environmental modelers and GIS experts working on regional planning and policy support applications.
This comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art and the ideas behind the reaction engineering approach (REA) to drying processes is an ideal resource for researchers, academics and industry practitioners. Starting with the formulation, modelling and applications of the lumped-REA, it goes on to detail the use of the REA to describe local evaporation and condensation, and its coupling with equations of conservation of heat and mass transfer, called the spatial-REA, to model non-equilibrium multiphase drying. Finally, it summarises other established drying models, discussing their features, limitations and comparisons with the REA. Application examples featured throughout help fine-tune the models and implement them for process design and the evaluation of existing drying processes and product quality during drying. Further uses of the principles of REA are demonstrated, including computational fluid dynamics-based modelling, and further expanded to model other simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes.
Mathematical modelling is an essential tool in present-day ecological research. Yet for many ecologists it is still problematic to apply modelling in their research. In our experience, the major problem is at the conceptual level: proper understanding of what a model is, how ecological relations can be translated consistently into mathematical equations, how models are solved, steady states calculated and interpreted. Many textbooks jump over these conceptual hurdles to dive into detailed formulations or the mathematics of solution. This book attempts to fill that gap. It introduces essential concepts for mathematical modelling, explains the mathematics behind the methods, and helps readers to implement models and obtain hands-on experience. Throughout the book, emphasis is laid on how to translate ecological questions into interpretable models in a practical way.
The book aims to be an introductory textbook at the undergraduate-graduate level, but will also be useful to seduce experienced ecologists into the world of modelling. The range of ecological models treated is wide, from Lotka-Volterra type of principle-seeking models to environmental or ecosystem models, and including matrix models, lattice models and sequential decision models. All chapters contain a concise introduction into the theory, worked-out examples and exercises. All examples are implemented in the open-source package R, thus taking away problems of software availability for use of the book. All code used in the book is available on a dedicated website.
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