In 1969 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established the Committee on Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS). The subject of air pollution was from the start one of the priority problems under study within the framework of various pilot studies undertaken by this Committee. The organization of a yearly conference dealing with air pollution modeling and its application has become one of the main activities within the pilot study relating to air pollution. The international conference was organized for the first five years by the United States and for the second five years by the Federal Republic of Germany. Belgium, represented by the Prime Minister's Office for Science policy, became responsible in 1980 for organizing the third five years of the annual conference. This volume contains the papers presented at the 15th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting (ITM) on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held in St. Louis, Missouri, from the 15th to 19th April 1985. This ITM was jointly organized by the Prime Minister's Office for Science Policy, Belgium (Pilot Country); by the Environmental Protection Agency, Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory, United States (Host Country); and by Washington University, Mechanical Engineering Department (Host Organization).
This book, written by two mathematicians from the University of Southern California, provides a broad introduction to the important subject of nonlinear mixture models from a Bayesian perspective. It contains background material, a brief description of Markov chain theory, as well as novel algorithms and their applications. It is self-contained and unified in presentation, which makes it ideal for use as an advanced textbook by graduate students and as a reference for independent researchers. The explanations in the book are detailed enough to capture the interest of the curious reader, and complete enough to provide the necessary background material needed to go further into the subject and explore the research literature.In this book the authors present Bayesian methods of analysis for nonlinear, hierarchical mixture models, with a finite, but possibly unknown, number of components. These methods are then applied to various problems including population pharmacokinetics and gene expression analysis. In population pharmacokinetics, the nonlinear mixture model, based on previous clinical data, becomes the prior distribution for individual therapy. For gene expression data, one application included in the book is to determine which genes should be associated with the same component of the mixture (also known as a clustering problem). The book also contains examples of computer programs written in BUGS. This is the first book of its kind to cover many of the topics in this field.
Cell culture based research is important for our understanding of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. Using this approach, the previous decades have produced a wealth of mechanistic information in all areas of biomedical research. Such in vitro research, however, lacks the complexity of in vivo investigations, where many different cell types interact with each other in a normal, three-dimensional environment, with normal levels of cytokines and growth factors. Furthermore, complex human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes or chronic inflammation, can only be modeled in vivo. Due to its small size, its short reproduction time, and the possibility to introduce specific gene mutations, the mouse has become the favourite mammalian model organism to study in vivo function of genes during development and in disease. This book combines review articles on selected subjects presented at the symposium "Mouse as a Model Organism -- From Animals to Cells", held in Rovaniemi, Finland, 2009. Among other topics, high-throughput phenotyping of mouse mutants, mouse phenotypes dependent on nature and nuture, and a spectrum of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro methods to study cancer in mice are described. This book will give an excellent introduction to scientists interested in the use of mice as a model to understand complex biological questions in the post-genomic era. It will highlight the possibilities, but also discuss the current problems and shortcomings, to give a realistic view of the current state-of-art in this fascinating field of biomedical research.
From the Introduction: "Verbal communication is one of the most difficult forms of communication because of its fluid and ever-changing nature. Having a plan will make all of your conversations more interesting and rewarding. " The six ideas contained in this book will help improve your conversations with others. These principles will give you an edge in every conversation and the confidence you need in every situation. Since verbal communication cannot be avoided, it vitally important to do as much as possible to become proficient and increasingly more competent in this skill. Six Ideas for EVERY Conversation Idea #1: Words Have Meaning Idea #2: The Right Words Have Power Idea #3: Timing is Everything Idea #4: Watching the Tone OF and IN your Voice Idea #5: How to Use Questions Correctly Idea #6: The Lost Center of Communication
Since its inception, just after the Second World War, human factors research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for human factors research. Modelling Command and Control takes a broad view of command and control research, to include C2 (command and control), C3 (command, control and communication), and C4 (command, control, communication and computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. The book presents case studies in diverse military applications (e.g. land, sea and air) of command and control. While the domains of application are very different, many of the challenges they face share interesting similarities.Modelling Command and Control will explore some of the differences and similarities in the land, sea and air domains. The book begins with an overview of human factors issues for command and control. These issues include theoretical and methodological developments, approaches to system and interface design, workload and situation awareness. The book places the role of humans as central and distinct from other aspects of the system. Therefore, although there is an over-arching conception of command and control 'systems', the focus of the book is to consider the peculiarities of the roles adopted by humans. There is a call for a socio-technical approach to the command and control research, by which both social and technical domains are treated with equal importance. This book demonstrates how the social and technical domains interact in the extensive case study material.
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